We tested the strain KID7 in vivo to confirm the cholesterol-lowering activity in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice in comparison with the previously reported cholesterol-lowering probiotic strain L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 as positive control. (25), the measurement of the yellow coordinate (b*) could be used for predicting lycopene content in tomato products. The gruel was serial-10-fold diluted and 10−4 to 10−6 dilutions were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium and incubated at 37°C for 24 h to pick as single colony of strain KID7. Hypolipidemic activity of Okra is mediated through inhibition of lipogenesis and upregulation of cholesterol degradation. Microarrays, or DNA chips, are essentially glass slides with a representative sample of every gene in a genome spotted onto the surface. Strain KID7 was negative for hemolytic activity on blood agar (Figure S3B), mucin degradation on mucin-supplied medium (Figure S3C), and bioamine production on various amino acid-supplied decarboxylase agar media (Figure S3A). 16
Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO) level was significantly decreased by 19.8% in the HCD-KID7 group (P < 0.05), but not in the HCD-L.ac group compared with the HCD group. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from KID7 was performed with the primers 27F and 1492R (Borges et al., 2013) and sequencing of the PCR product was done with 27F and 785F (5′-GGATTAGATACCCTGGTA-3′) primers to get a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Tolerance to the GIT is one of the selection criterion recommended by FAO-WHO (2002); hence, we studied the tolerance of KID7 to progressive oral, gastric, and intestinal stress (OGT assay) in order to mimic the physiological condition. The importance of the C-terminal region of pediocins in determining the target cell specificity was demonstrated in research with pediocin AcH (same as pediocin PA-1) in which cleaving the peptide region from residue 20 to residue 34 greatly diminished the bactericidal activity of the pediocin (Fimland et al., 1998). P. acidilactici is also known to prevent colonization of the small intestine by pathogens such as Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Clostridium difficile, and Escherichia coli among small animals. Reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase activity may be present in pediococci, leading to the production of water. The direct use of Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 and Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 in fermentation of tomato powder increases its carotenoid content, and makes it a beneficial additive that improves the colour and nutritional value of minced meat. The biochemical tests of strain KID7 and the closely related strain P. pentosaceus KACC 12311 are shown in Table S1. Effects of P. pentosaceus KID7 and L. acidophilus on hepatic and fecal lipid levels. GPT levels in the NCD, HCD-KID7, and HCD-L.ac groups were reduced by 30, 30, and 28%, respectively, vs. the HCD control group (all, P < 0.05) (Figure 4E). Br. Our results indicated that KID7 could be used as a potential cholesterol-lowering probiotic that needs to be confirmed by clinical trials in humans. Dis. Probiotics Antimicrob. APOE mRNA expression level was significantly increased in the HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups vs. that of the HCD group (Figure 6). Br. Food Bioprocess Tech. In our study, we did not observe any significant down regulation in HMGCR expression in the HCD-KID7 group compared to HCD group, whereas LDLR expression and APOE expression increased in the HCD-KID7 group. After incubation, the mixture was lyophilized, dissolved in 1 ml of methanol and centrifuged to remove precipitates. Food Technol. 4 Intensity of colour, taste and acceptability of ready-to-cook minced meat prepared without and with tomato powder addition. (B) Viable count of KID7 after each stages of simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit. The ready-to-cook minced meat with 10% tomato powder fermented with L. sakei and P. pentosaceus had the highest acceptability scores (9.4 and 8.8, respectively) (Fig. 1993;12:39–85. J. Although, KID7 tolerated bile during brief exposure of 2 h and showed good viability in the OGT assay, growth of the strain was significantly affected during longer exposure to bile as is the case with cholesterol-lowering activity in the presence of bile. doi: 10.1007/s00253-012-4031-2, Bover-Cid, S., and Holzapfel, W. H. (1999). Antibiotic susceptibility of P. pentosaceus KID7. Buckenhüskes HJ. Gianluca Veneziani, ... Maurizio Servili, in Olive Mill Waste, 2017. 5 Reduction in lycopene and β-carotene contents during thermal treatment (10 min in water at 100 °C) of ready-to-cook minced meat.