Mean values Composition based on Codex Standards for Fats and Oils from Vegetable Sources (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999) Source: McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods Integrated Data Set 2019. Most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids exist in the cis configuration. Pingback: Increase in Demand for Heart Health Supplements | Natural Health Information - May 1, 2014, Pingback: Molecular Weight Of Palm Oil - Chemical Literature - December 26, 2019. The Stationery Office. Registered in England No. Industrially, mono and diacylglycerols are produced by partial hydrolysis or glycerolysis of triacylglycerols for use as food grade emulsifiers. Data for palm kernel oil taken from the Canadian Food Composition Data Base. Fat Composition Analysis. IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (2nd ed.). Tocotrienols have become a focus of research in recent years because of findings showing high efficacy in protecting against heart related diseases and certain cancers. Fatty acids can used as animal feed or sold to oleochemical producers for production of soaps and other specialised chemicals. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. (3) Position of the double bonds in the chain. In the case of oils & fats, the carboxylic acids consist of fatty. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. relative positions of the alkyl groups. In addition to anticancer effects, tocotrienol-rich fractions of palm oil have hypocholesterolaemic effects in humans and offer protection against heart diseases. Palm oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the fruit of the palm Elaeis guineensis. Thus triolein is the triglyceride of oleic acid, tripalmitin that of palmitic acid, tristearin that of stearic acid, while monopalmitin-distearin contains, as the name indicates, one molecule of palmitic and two of stearic acid. The main source of phytosterols in large scale production is the by-products from the process of refining oils. Sources: McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods Integrated Data Set 2019. These elements make up molecules of fatty acids and glycerol, which combine to form fat molecules known as triacylglycerols. Palm oil is distinguished from other oil by its high level of palmitic acid (C16:0). Unlike other vegetable oil, palm oil also contains almost equal quantities of saturated (palmitic 45% and stearic acid 4%) and unsaturated acids (oleic 40% and linoleic acid 10%). Most fatty acids in the trans configuration (trans fats) are not found in nature and are the result of human processing. Pesticides are used to increase agriculture production throughout the world. Addr: No.76 Xinda Rd.,Zhoutie Town, Yixing City, Jiangsu Province, China. Sources: McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods Integrated Data Set 2019. Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications, CRC Press, 2009, I really appreciate this, helpful though. The Stationery Office. Ubiquinone is another interesting and valuable minor component present in palm oil. oleic (18:1, 34%), Crude palm olein has a higher content of tocopherols and tocotrienols. stearic (18:0, 4%), From the table above, with reference to C18:3 linolenic fatty acids, the different locations of the double bonds define the type of fatty acid and its functionality. Palm Oil Development (1990) No 12, 25-27 ( FFA = free fatty acids, ND = not detected, M.P. Accessed 16 Dec 2019 ( PM, Roe MA, Pinchen HM, Berry R, Church SM, Dodhia KK, Farron Wilson M, Swan G. (2015). The type of fatty acid, as well as the distribution across these positions, determines the characteristics of the oils/fats. Most of the saturated fatty acids occurring in nature have unbranched structures with an even number of carbon atoms. Most of the loss occurs at deodorisation, and consequently palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has up to five to ten times the level in crude oil. Cis isomers will also have a lower melting point compared with its equivalent trans isomer. They may also be present as glucosides. Other components are free fatty acids (FFA), moisture, dirt and minor components of non-oil fatty matter referred to collectively as unsaponifiable matter. They produce the beautiful colours of many birds, insects, and marine animals as well as the colours of many flowers and fruits. 4. 1. ( Log Out /  Complex esters which contain phosphorus, nitrogen bases, sugars, and long-chain fatty acids are classed as phospholipids. Palm kernel oil is similar to coconut oil in terms of composition, and is produced by mechanical extraction of the kernels which are pre-dried in palm oil mills through a partial vacuum process. 1555042. If there is a double bond in between the carbon atoms of a fatty acid, it is known as monounsaturated. Great attention should be given during the various steps of the process to minimize the amount of FFA in the starting or finished oil products. Phytosterols have been the subject of many nutritionists because of their bioactivities such as cholesterol-lowering actions and anti-cancer effects. Besides the role of providing a source of vitamin, carotenoids are considered to have anti-carcinogenic properties. CPO produced in Malaysia in the average will contain about 3.5% FFA, 4.7% diacylglycerols, 0.2% monoacylglycerols, 0.25% moisture and impurities, 1% minor components and balance 90.35% of triacylglycerols. Phosphatides can be either soluble or weakly soluble in water and thus giving rise to two types of gums: • Non-hydratable gums       – Can be removed by acid treatment Good job. Data for palm kernel oil taken from the Canadian Food Composition Data Base. Sterols are high-melting polycyclic alcohols of the general structure: Phytosterols or plant sterols form a major part of the unsaponifiable fraction of palm oil. The mesocarp comprises about 70 – 80% by weight of the fruit and about 45 -50% of this mesocarp is oil. Processing studies have shown that neither solvent extraction nor bleaching affects the pesticide levels in oils; however, it was found that pesticides are removed by volatilization during deodorization. The main responsibility for this last ill-effect, however, is linked with traces of pro-oxidant iron liable to persist in refined oil along with the gummy material rather than phosphatides themselves. Vegetable Oil in Food Technology, Blackwell Publishing, 2002 9. Tocols, natural antioxidants found in plant-based oils, include four tocopherol and four tocotrienol isomers, each designated as alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ) depending on the number and position of methyl groups on a chromane ring; they also possess vitamin E activity. α-linolenic (18:3, 5%) The rest of the fruit comprises the shell, kernel, moisture and other non-fatty fibres. Mono, Diacylglycerols and Free Fatty Acids (FFA). Since there are a number of different fatty acids that occur in natural fats, a great many different triglycerides are encountered in nature. The first stage is a partial hydrolysis, the products being FFA and diglycerides (glycerol with two fatty acids attached). Data for palm kernel oil taken from Canadian Food Composition Data Base (;jsessionid=B71D6F2DDB1BBBFA0516715C001B8095)Abbreviations: FFA = free fatty acids, TE = tocopherol equivalents, Mean values with ranges Composition based on Codex Standards for Fats and Oils from Vegetable Sources (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999) ( and tocotriencol content based on ABDUL GAPOR Mohd Top. Note that from the table above, the longer the carbon chain (i.e C16 and C17) , the higher the melting point. If there is more than one double bond in a fatty acid, then it is known as polyunsaturated. Cambridge, Royal Socieyt of Chemistry. These are myristic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolic acid, and linolenic acid.