In general, the dominant ideas about the obligations of mass media will be consistent with other values and arrangements in a given society. 2. Development media theory (applying in countries at lower levels of economic development and with limited resources) takes various forms but essentially proposes that media freedom, while desirable, should be subordinated (of necessity) to the requirements of economic, social and political development. They propose a typology of relations between the media system and the political system, based on a comparative examination of contemporary national societies. The range of media effects addressed herein includes news diffusion, learning from the mass media, socialization of children and adolescents, influences on public opinion and voting, and violent and sexually explicit media content. 0000040814 00000 n In the western liberal tradition, this refers to matters such as freedom, equality before the law, social solidarity and cohesion, cultural diversity, active participation, and social responsibility. Theories of Mass Media . Queer Theory explores and challenges the way in which heterosexuality is constructed as normal and homosexuality as deviant. we argue that part of the agenda-setting function of the mass media is to inform recipients what other people believe to be important. 0000005084 00000 n 0000003519 00000 n Schramm 2. In the second part we extend this analysis to transactions and trades. Trends and Dynamic Forces Affecting Regulation. 0000006918 00000 n : 02. outline of some major audience theories. The psychophysics of chance induce overweighting of sure things and of improbable events, relative to events of moderate probability. It also presents a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding media effects, including psychological and content-based theories. trailer 0000018111 00000 n startxref In addition, it demonstrates how theories can guide future research into the effects of newer mass communication technologies. Journal of Media Psychology Theories Methods and Applications. Agenda-Setting Theory Concept 1: The agenda-setting process is a very fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public and/or policy makers. Link between the political society and mass media was first explained by the authors: 1. 0000007292 00000 n Media are free but they should accept obligations to serve the public good. 0000036600 00000 n It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. We discuss the cognitive and the psy- chophysical determinants of choice in risky and risk- less contexts. In this view there are three types or variants, each with different implications for the role and obligations of the media in society: As with the theories outlined previously, these models are also `ideal types' and in practice societies have a mixture of the elements outlined. The main relevant variants can be described as follows: Authoritarian theory (which applies to early pre-democratic forms of society and also to present- day undemocratic or autocratic social systems). h�b```b``����� �� �� @16�)XASG;�mV/�O����Y���YyX98����]f�ee`�`wf-g�c?Ϻ�͝]�M�C�C�S��C޶E��fE>�W�lVd����*��[�1 �]\2-� Volume No. According to Siebert et al (1956) in their book Four Theories of the Press, "the press takes on the form and coloration of the social and political structures within which it operates" (pp.1-2). However, the media reinforces and exaggerates stereotypical ‘male’ and ‘female’ behaviour, which we adopt as ‘normal’. 0000001966 00000 n 0000005818 00000 n The Authoritarian Theory . 0000015338 00000 n De- cision problems can be described or framed in multiple ways that give rise to different preferences, contrary to the invariance criterion of rational choice. First, this entry touches on the history of media effects. However, these findings are true only in cases of individuals who are motivated to process the information. These features enhance the already in-depth analysis Media Effects and Society provides. ��ez-d������-2o�T��mZ����'�PY�m���*Ҷ��J���MZ�=��UL�9�o���m���SW2g,lz~o�!Bqಸ:��2M^�YLzd�u�Y�Ci����� ���ee�+�gTVƜ/�`�UmH�@�@3-;g�,u��u�PT�\T 0000007747 00000 n 0000002325 00000 n 0000001136 00000 n the relationship between media and crime within the academy. 504 0 obj <> endobj 2.1 Normative media theory. Media theory refers to the complex of social-political-philosophical principles which organize ideas about the relationship between media and society. Media effects include theories that explain how the mass media influence the attitudes and perceptions of audience members. The press and other media, in their view, will reflect the "basic beliefs and assumptions that the society holds". 0000010727 00000 n Because of this ambivalence, participants were more willing to seek information and showed increased online information-seeking behavior. 0000034530 00000 n • An analysis of the theories (pluralism, left realism) which have emerged from within the academy but which have explicitly addressed the implications of theory for practitioners and policymakers. Hallin and Mancini (2004) have argued that we should forget about normative theories and look more closely at actual arrangements connecting media with society. %%EOF <]/Prev 992179>> Specific Patterns of Media Regulation: the Newspaper Press, 6. The second edition includes a new chapter on effects of entertainment, as well as text boxes with examples for each chapter, discussion of new technology effects integrated throughout the chapters, expanded pedagogy, and updates to the theory and research in the text.