The Hymn to Hermes is remarkable for the corruption of the text, which appears even to present lacunae. Most cast irons have a chemical composition of 2.5–4.0% carbon, 1–3% silicon, and the remainder iron. With this excerpt Homer most likely wishes to denote that Music or more complex musical instruments than before (if there were any before this), appeared together with the other innovations of the discussed era. Hermes came hurrying to the shadowy mountains of Pieria, where the divine cattle of the blessed gods had their steads and grazed the pleasant, unmown meadows. What we have examined here is a witten document from Antiquity that clearly describes epochs of the distant past and some of their characteristics: At some distant past Humans were living in caves, ignorant of the use of fire. As it appears, Music was born together with what we, more or less, perceive as ‘civilization’ even today. So soon as he had leaped from his mother’s heavenly womb, he lay not long waiting in his holy cradle, but he sprang up and sought the oxen of Apollo. Therefore, he is referred to as some regional archon/king of an unknown era. Writing in Neolithic Europe; an Aegean origin? He lords it over Kyllene and Arkadia, rich in flocks, courier of the immortals, messenger, quick-as-death, infant born to Maia, a nymph with beautiful hair. Therefore, it is possible that we deal here with a transitional period where people begin to organize themselves in towns and cities, abandoning their previous habit of living in caves and natural shelters. Ancient Greek: ταῦτ᾽ ἔχε, Μαιάδος υἱέ, καὶ ἀγραύλους ἕλικας βοῦς ἵππους τ᾽ ἀμφιπόλευε καὶ ἡμιόνους ταλαεργούς. Further, it is very interesting that ‘Hermes the cave man’ is described as using a tool ‘γλυφάνῳ πολιοῖο σιδήρου’ which means ‘chisel made of grey/whitish iron‘ (instead of ‘a scoop of grey iron’). What way of song? ( Log Out /  At Pytho one would find a ‘μέγαν δόμον’ ( = ‘big building/house’ which implies construction capabilities and the analogous Knowledge behind it),  where he can steal (because Hermes, in the text, threats to do exactly this) the following items (all of them are symbols of wealth, prestige and uniqueness): ‘τρίποδας περικαλλέας’ (‘splendid tripods’ is a clear indication of Art and, almost certainly, Metallurgy, as tripods were usually made of some kind of metal). ‘εὐφροσύνη’ (gleefulness), ‘ἔρως’ (eros) and ‘ἥδυμος ὕπνος’ (the pleasant sleep) go together, as Apollo says. Hermes protects thieves and raiders, "minions of the moon," "clerks of Additionally, as we have presented here (Greek Mythology: What are its divisions and the reasons it should be studied) “The Mythological (A)eon was defined from the Cataclysm of Ogygos to the beginning of the Olympiads, which they also call Heroic, because during that (a)eon the Heroes lived, thought to be the descendants and successors of the gods. Please take some time to read the following article: Mesolithic findings from the Aegean suggest a ‘polycentric neolithization’ in the Eastern Mediterranean – Settlement at Maroulas site on Kythnos island; the earliest identified so far in the Aegean area, contemporaneous to the PPNA of the Near East. • Allen, Thomas W., William R. Halliday, and Edward E. Sikes, eds. Moreover, the fact that Terpander did invent the seven chords Anyhow, this excerpt confirms that we are dealing with an era when animals are well domesticated. We are not sure where this first took place neither we know anything about the time it happened. This most likely had been the echo of the distant past of Men. divine amour in a dusky cavern. but, as the Hymn shows, he aspired in vain to Apollo's oracular function. First among the gods he honoured Mnemosyne, mother of the Muses, in his song; for the son of Maia was of her following. Edward I. or Scott. And from heaven father Zeus himself gave confirmation to his words, and commanded that glorious Hermes should be lord over all birds of omen and grim-eyed lions, and boars with gleaming tusks, and over dogs and all flocks that the wide earth nourishes, and over all sheep; also that he only should be the appointed messenger to Hades, who, though he takes no gift, shall give him no mean prize. Considering the content of Hermes’ song, it is likely that with the above description Homer wants to inform us that anyone who tells analogous stories/songs works in the same direction of preserving Memory (Knowledge of the distant past). and Alepotrypa Cave & Ksagounaki, Greece; A burial complex and Megaliths from the Neolithic Age, Ancient Greek: αὐτὰρ ἄρ᾽ Ἑρμῆς Πιερίης ἀφίκανε θέων ὄρεα σκιόεντα, ἔνθα θεῶν μακάρων βόες ἄμβροτοι αὖλιν ἔχεσκον βοσκόμεναι λειμῶνας ἀκηρασίους, ἐρατεινούς. Ancient Greek: Διὸς δ᾽ ἐριούνιος Ἑρμῆς δοχμωθεὶς μεγάροιο διὰ κλήιθρον ἔδυνεν αὔρῃ ὀπωρινῇ ἐναλίγκιος, ἠύτ᾽ ὀμίχλη. Later in the narration Hermes slaughters two of these oxen. We restrict/limit our analysis mainly in the Greek peninsula because what we examine here is information provided by the Ancient Greek Tradition. And we know equally very little for the time interval that starts from the first use of fire until the turnpoint of Agriculture. This tells us indeed of social inequalities and crime at some distant past era. Of these the Son of Maia, the sharp-eyed slayer of Argus then cut off from the herd fifty loud-lowing kine, and drove them straggling-wise across a sandy place, turning their hoof-prints aside. ‘Hermes the cave man’ evolved very quickly ‘from dawn to evening’…. The early traders, like the Vikings, The reader might be interested to read the following articles: Neanderthal stone ring structures found in French cave (~175,000 years old), Dietary behaviours of Neanderthals, Palaeolithic in the Pindus Mountains of Western Macedonia (Greece); Neanderthals exploited raw materials at altitudes as high as 2,200m, Ancient Greek: βέλτερον ἤματα πάντα μετ᾽ ἀθανάτοις ὀαρίζειν, πλούσιον, ἀφνειόν, πολυλήιον, ἢ κατὰ δῶμα ἄντρῳ ἐν ἠερόεντι θαασσέμεν, English: Better to live in fellowship with the deathless gods continually, rich, wealthy, and enjoying stories of grain, than to sit always in a gloomy cave. And much gold and silver was stored in them, and many garments of the nymph, some purple and some silvery white, such as are kept in the sacred houses of the blessed gods. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τεῦξε, φέρων, ἐρατεινὸν ἄθυρμα, πλήκτρῳ ἐπειρήτιζε κατὰ μέρος: ἣ δ᾽ ὑπὸ χειρὸς σμερδαλέον κονάβησε: θεὸς δ᾽ ὑπὸ καλὸν ἄειδεν ἐξ αὐτοσχεδίης πειρώμενος, English: Then he cut off its limbs and scooped out the marrow of the mountain-tortoise with a scoop of grey iron. Πυθώ ( =Pytho) was the more ancient name of the well known region of Delphi, a place were Apollo reigned. ἀνθρώποισι πᾶσι μέτεστι γινώσκειν ἑωυτοὺς καὶ σωφρονεῖν. abundantly: he had the golden wand of wealth. Here we notice one of those ‘special contradictions’ of which we briefly discussed above. This element, in theory, could be crucial in providing a relative chronology for the era in discussion. himself. Hermes then starts singing a song about the story of the ‘gods’ and ‘dark earth’. Archaeological evidence so far shows that already from the Neolithic Age the use of some metals had started. proceeding, answer to the equally shapeless feather sandals of the blacks NovoScriptorium: Hermes enters his ‘μέγαρον’, according to the text. Bears and grey wolves still exist -in very low numbers- in the Greek peninsula, while lions have been extinct many centuries ago. And that they decided to honour the Divine through something that massively changed their lives; fire. Obviously, what we have here is a parallel narration. previous four strings. NovoScriptorium: This excerpt repeats that animals were well domesticated in this specific era. But Apollo was seized with a longing not to be allayed, and he opened his mouth and spoke winged words to Hermes: “Slayer of oxen, trickster, busy one, comrade of the feast, this song of yours is worth fifty cows”. It is very reasonable to honour Mnemosyne first, because Zeus himself, as described in the Hymn, is no deity but a common man, of high position perhaps, that has needs and desires. The crucial detail is this one: “such as are kept in the sacred houses of the blessed gods“. At first glance, the main period described in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes seems to be the Neolithic and most likely the so-called Early Neolithic.