Matter existed before the appearance of a thinking human. The word Plato applied to this perfect circle, which was not to be seen anywhere in our world, and to other similar entities was idea which meant shape or figure. Wir können höchstens zu Gott beten, aber die Erfahrung zeigt, dass sich dadurch nie etwas ändert. Mind is a special property of matter organised in a special manner. One must be right, the other wrong. In his system of ideas the divine is the immortal, the unchangeable, the ultimate source of motion, which is itself unmoved and unmovable. He singled out fire as the first principle, the ultimate substance of things, from which all others were produced The following text from Heraclitus was preserved by Clement of Alexandria: This world, which is the same for all things, was made by no god or man. Das Vorstellen, Denken, der geistige Verkehr der Menschen erscheinen hier noch als direkter Ausfluß[sic] ihres materiellen Verhaltens. The human brain, a part of the human organism, thinks. Plato coupled with his immortality of the soul that according as men lived righteously or unrighteously, purely or sensually, they would be happy or miserable in the world beyond death. Although pragmatists claim to have overcome the opposition between materialist and idealist standpoints, they actually dodge the decisive issues between them in the theory of knowledge. But he then stated that humankind could never know them; all we could know were phenomena or things as they appeared to us. He was driven to look for stable intellectual concepts by the need of the soul to find something stable on which it could rest in the midst of a world of change and passing away. Max Weber erklärt in “Protestantische Ethik”, warum das Protestantismus für die neue Bedingungen gut ist: Anständige reiche Leute sind auserwählt, sie sind “gut”, die Armut (in Widerspruch zum Evangelium) ist eine Strafe Gottes, in Himmel gehen die Leute, die arbeiten und sparen. and contributors to our own oppression. It is our interaction with the external world and those around us which determines who we are, and inaction does not make us soldiers. Marxist Materialism versus Idealism. All the rest, the heavenly bodies, the world, plants, animals and humans, were in one way or another derived from the interactions of these elements. Subjects covered include ethics; natural science (cosmology, astronomy, psychology and sense perception); logic (problems and criticisms of past theories); mathematics (geometry and numbers); music (rhythm and harmony, poetry and phraseology); technical works on medicine, agriculture, drawing and painting etc). His ideal was a state remote from the demoralising influences of commerce, in which an established order worked generation after generation, in which the citizens were distributed in fixed classes and an aristocracy of the wisest ruled — all clear, clean and beautiful and restfully changeless. Vor uns liegt ein Patientin, die z.B. Das war aber nicht irgendein philosophisches System von dem es viele gibt, die man belieblig austauschen kann, sie ist einzigartig. Die Idee kommt also zuerst, und alles andere, z.B. This balance, however, is constantly being upset by the movement, the interaction, the contention of its warring opposites. All these types of thinking are confused and inconsistent over fundamental problems. They usually end up in alignment with idealism. They are not sure whether experience necessarily arises out of nature and after it, or whether nature emerges from experience. ‘Cause nobody can break us, “We know how to do our time.” etc., etc. Consciousness did not and cannot create matter because without matter consciousness cannot exist. The Milesian school (about 585 BC) set aside religious attitudes and ideas, laying the foundations for materialist philosophy. So entsteht langsam die Sklavenhaltergesellschaft. Whoever maintains consistently the position of one is inescapably led to conclusions exactly contrary to the other. Aber wie kann man eine Menge Bauern dazu bewegen, ohne ständige Überwachung und ohne Waffengebrauch, den Herrn zu versorgen? What is first perceived through the five senses is “perceptual knowledge.” When enough perceptual knowledge has ac- cumulated in our brains, perceptual knowledge leaps to “conceptual knowledge” (the formation of ideas, theories, plans, measures, etc. Selbst kleinste Teilchen wie Protonen oder Elektronen, sind materiell, da wir sie mit physischen Geräten registrieren, und diese Registration mit Augen wahrnehmen können. They were the ideological expression of the slaveholding aristocracy in its defensive battle for supremacy against the democratic tendencies emanating from the mercantile and plebeian forces in the Greek city-states. The vestiges of all beliefs to be found in the Milesian thinkers signify only that they could not go farther than the scientific knowledge and social framework of their epoch. One of the major tasks of the idealists was to rehabilitate the religious outlook, which for many reasons had fallen into disrepute. Diese Folgen nennt man den “Überbau”. Er beschäftigte sich mit Geschichtsphilosophie, und meinte, dass die ganze Geschichte der Menschheit von einer Idee bestimmt wird, und zwar von göttlicher Idee. It was demonstrated in the 20th century that even the weight of atoms of the same elements is variable (isotopes). Diese Ursache kann durch entsprechende materielle Mittel, also Antibiotika, auch beseitigt werden. Acting upon this, the Greek generals forced Agamemnon to give up his concubine. Die Wissenschaft hat aber bewiesen, dass die Lungenentzündung eine klare materielle Ursache hat, und zwar die Mikroorganismen. The law of the identity or interpenetration of opposites as a primary feature of all things and as the explanation for their becoming and change we owe to Heraclitus. Though most are unaware of it, our ways of thinking are dominated by one of two camps, idealism or materialism, and idealism is the prevailing mode of though within prison society. →, Tributes to political prisoner Tom Manning, Call for Art and Article Submissions: Health/Care, Oppose the new directive from DOCCS eliminating food packages, Jaan Laaman transferred to USP McCreary in Pine Knot, Kentucky.