The two earlier books (Being and the Reflection) concern the genesis of the subject, and once a new subjectivity coming into Being, its development, or concretisation, proceeds through its objectification and re-internalisation until it becomes an integral part of the life of the whole people. Although it has never been made explicit, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (one of several names under which this current of social-psychology travels) implicitly rests on the ontology that has been proposed here as a foundation for spirit. The universal will is not to be looked on as compounded of definitively individual wills, so that these remain absolute; otherwise the saying would be correct: “Where the minority must obey the majority, there is no freedom.” The universal will must really be the rational will, even if we are not conscious of the fact; the state is therefore not an association which is decreed by the arbitrary will of individuals.” [Philosophy of Right], 52. Only a few points ought to be made here. The nervous system is constructed through the use of artefacts of all kinds, tools, words, etc., etc. The interpretation of the letter A, our idea of it and what we do with it, is of course, something else, and I do not subsume this thinking and acting under the term “material culture.”. is a profound feeling of reverence for Nature and the wider Universe The participatory democracy outlined in the Philosophy of Right was, despite Hegel’s claims to the contrary, wishful thinking. The stages of the Notion are: Subject, Object, Idea. 6. Independence of master’s thought. Pantheism is the motivating force and the core of Hegel's system. exploration of the workings of the world-spirit which he identified with God. So for Hegel a subject is some system of activity, which is only to be taken as an individual person in a limiting sense. 17. “The misunderstanding as to the universal will proceeds from this, that the Notion of freedom must not be taken in the sense of the arbitrary caprice of an individual, but in the sense of the rational will, of the will in and for itself. Whereas formal logic is concerned with the necessary laws of inference connecting propositions within a consistent formal theory, i.e., it is a propositional calculus, Hegel’s Logic, on the other hand, is concerned not with formal theories but with “shapes of spirit” and their vulnerability to sceptical self-criticism. What God creates he himself is … God is manifestation of his own self. son of a revenue officer. Altogether, it is clear enough that an individual’s knowledge is but a certain fraction of the social knowledge in which they participate. powerless as to be incapable of producing anything but a mere ideal, a mere intention - The subject will announce itself. As problematic as it is, when considered as something on its own and in itself, the psyche is not a brain state or any such thing. Religion Peter Hodgson, ed., University of California Press, Berkeley, 1984.  That fact that it is also a natural object like the bodies of wild animals is neither here nor there: all artefacts are also natural material objects subject to the laws of physics, chemistry and biology, as well as being shaped by and for their use in human society, just like our domestic animals and our environment. Marx was little inclined to formulate or express his ideas in the terms of a systematic philosophy. An overview of pantheist history, theory and practice. This is very dangerous. only through the State.  Hegel’s concept of spirit, and in particular his conception of the subject as a concrete universal, offers an insight into how social solidarity is constructed and this was exactly what Hegel intended. This is why the notion of ‘discourse’ has shortcomings: although it focuses attention on the fact that institutions and perceptions are shaped by ideology, it tends to overlook the fact that artefacts are also material things which have an existence outside of ideology. But in the progress into each new era, a hero had to be selected by the Spirit of History—the Geist—to accomplish the aufhebung (the cancelling or “sublation”) of the old and movement into the new. idealistic pantheism, in which all existence and all history are part of God's cosmic the heads of certain human beings. Polity Press and my review, “Honneth’s ‘Struggle for Recognition’,” December 2003. A book or stone tablet continues to exist exactly as it is, even when the language with which it is inscribed is forgotten, and while it remains buried and lost to the sight of human beings, tucked away, mislaid on a library shelf where it will never be opened. The Stages of the Subject are: Abstract Notion, Judgment, Syllogism. (2) The second is Particularity – that is, the specific character, in which the universal continues serenely equal to itself. dialectical process of thesis, contradiction and synthesis. I have a clear and distinct idea of myself as something that thinks and isn’t extended, and one of body as something that is extended and does not think. “Gestalt” is more commonly translated whole, but in the case of its use by Hegel is usually translated as “shape of consciousness” or “formation of consciousness,” and includes both the way of thinking and social practices in a society. It is essentially social, or interpersonal in the broadest possible sense. History is apparently chaotic, and the Spirit works with guile. So, having made the point that it is the co-existence, not symmetry of psyche, activity and artefact which is at issue, it must be pointed out that it is in the first place the identity and inseparability of the three which is the specific nature of spirit. Marx had it right when he identified the commodity relation as the central problematic of our epoch, defining the relation between subjective and objective truth, between the individual and the community as a whole. Furthermore, my mind is me, for the following reason. Thus, every Legisign requires Sinsigns.”. It has already been indicated on a number of occasions that spirit is to be understood as simultaneously three things: psyche, activity and artefact, or more precisely, what is necessary in each, rather than capricious, contingent or inessential. ideas that the universe is an God evolving towards ever greater complexity and ideas had a clear aftermath stretching down to Hitler: his insistence on the First, there is an idea about the world (much like a thesis), which has an inherent flaw, giving rise to the antithesis.  But spirit is not to be understood as equal to each of these things, or that each separately are analogous to one another or to spirit. Gestalt, or “shape of spirit” was a very broad category for Hegel, with one and the same “formation of spirit” representing historical societies extending over centuries, before the scepticism in relation to the problematic of a formation of spirit brings forward irresolvable contradictions for resolution. I have chosen to translate it as “shape of spirit” or “formation of spirit” because it is important for my point that it is understood that the concept of Gestalt is not limited to subjective thought, which is what would be commonly understood by the word “consciousness.”, 10. 1995. headmaster of a secondary school in N©rnberg. everything returns, that upon which everything is dependent and apart from which nothing "I saw the Emperor - this world-spirit - go cit. Every legisign signifies through an instance of its application, which may be termed a Replica of it. calendar. Hegel intended that changing in how people think are to be identified with the changing institutions and movements they participated in and the changing cultural products they created and used. Whenever I use the word “culture” I refer to the mass of artefacts, dead things, but from the standpoint of their use in activity. IV. See my article “The Subject Matter of Hegel’s Logic” where the issue of what the Logic is about is taken up in detail, and “Getting to know Hegel,” 2000 or “The Meaning of Hegel’s Logic,” March 2007, for expositions of the Logic in more accessible language. 3. This approach uses a conception of “recognition” derived from a misreading of the master-servant relation in the Phenomenology to create a model of intersubjectivity which relegates mediation of all kinds. The existence of millions of guns in neighbourhoods in the USA, for example, is not something which can be wished away and nor is it simply a matter of interpretation; true, guns only kill people only if someone uses them to do so, but their existence in millions of homes and hands is a material fact; the distribution of guns in the US is therefore to be regarded as an artefact, and social policy has to figure with that.