Let us learn in detail about Alkanes and their physical properties below. General formula: C n H 2n+2 . Organic compounds having only two elements, carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. BY reason of their formula alkanes are said to #"HAVE NO DEGREES of UNSATURATION. Hexane is an alkane. Using this formula, we can write a molecular formula for any alkane with a given number of carbon atoms. Simple alkanes exist as a homologous series, in which adjacent members differ by a CH 2 unit. • Structural Isomers — the atoms in each molecule are connected in a different order. They are divided into two main classes, aliphatic and aromatic. There are two ways of writing a condensed structural formula.For example, butane may be written as CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 or CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 3. A fully saturated hydrocarbon, an alkane, has general formula #C_nH_(2n+2)#: #n =1#, methane; #n =2#, ethane; #n =3#, propane. ALKANES. The formula will be C 10 H 22. First member is Methane (CH 4) Also known as “Marsh gas”, chief constituent of natural gas (~97%) Hybridisation sp 3. Here is a list of the first 10 alkanes. Question. Methane, propane, ethane, and butane are four alkanes. Alkenes have the formula C n H 2n and alkynes use the formula C n H 2n-2. Chapter 1 Alkanes 13 25 Isomers • Isomers — compounds having identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements of atoms. These are organic molecules that consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms in a tree-shaped structure (acyclic or not a ring). Alkanes have the general formula [latex] C_nH_{2n+2} [/latex] and can be subdivided into the following three groups: the linear straight-chain alkanes, branched alkanes, and cycloalkanes.Alkanes are also saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. The Alkane family. Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbon chains. Key Takeaway. These are commonly known as paraffins and waxes. The successive members vary from each other by a CH 2 unit. Collectively, they are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they have fewer hydrogen atoms than does an alkane with the same number of carbon atoms, as is indicated in the following general formulas: Some representative alkenes—their names, structures, and physical properties—are given in Table \(\PageIndex{1}\). Formula of alkane is C n H 2n+2. This is because n = 10. By saturated hydrocarbons, it means alkanes have single hydrogen and carbon atoms in their chemical formula. "# Where the formula is #C_nH_(2n)# or #C_nH_(2n)O_m#, each 2 hydrogens LESS than #2n+2# represents a #"degree of unsaturation"#. The generic formula for alkanes is C n H 2n+2, where n is the number identified by the prefix. Its molecules contain 6 carbon atoms. The straight chain alkanes share the same general formula: \[C_{n}H_{2n+2}\] The general formula means that the number of hydrogen atoms. Alkane:- Aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are attached with each other by means of single covalent bond are called as alkanes. in an alkane is double the number of carbon atoms, plus two. So, 2 n +2 = (2 × 10) + 2 = 20 + 2 = 22. Alkanes with general formula C n H 2n+2, alkenes with general formula C n H 2n and alkynes with general formula C n H 2n-2 form the most basic homologous series in organic chemistry. Suggested Videos For example, an alkane with eight carbon atoms has the molecular formula C 8 H (2 × 8) + 2 = C 8 H 18. Examples of Homologous series. The general formula for an alkane is C n H 2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Straight-Chain Alkanes . Alkanes are organic compounds that consist entirely of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms and lack any other functional groups.