Luca Pacioli was an influential Italian friar and mathematician, who invented the standard symbols for plus and minus (+ and –). independence of many South American countries. Robinson also made contributions to computability theory and computational complexity theory. She applied her mathematical ability while gambling, and used her winnings to buy books and laboratory equipment, and made important advanced regarding the concepts like energy and energy conservation. Agnesi was the first western woman to write a mathematics textbook. 399 BCE:  Socrates is sentenced to death, refuses to escape, and drinks a cup of The third column contains the product of the first two, which is the area of a rectangle with the given dimensions. Pingala (पिङ्गल) was an ancient Indian poet and mathematician who lived around 300 BCE, but very little is known about his life. discovers special relativity, and E = mc². He made significant contributions to probability theory, stochastic processes and Markov chains. He also found a simple proof that π is irrational, and the first proof that π2 is irrational. During the second World War, Weil fled to the United States and later joined the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University. He also played an active role in reforming the education system in the Soviet Union, and developing a pedagogy for gifted children. c. 250 CE:  The Mayan culture in Central America flourishes, and uses a base-20 Page 15 from a translation of Al-Jabr, which shows how to solve quadratic equations of the form x2+bx=c. When arrenged correctly, they form a multiplication table in base 10, written in ancient Chinese calligraphy. He is the only person to receive both the Nobel Prize for economics and the Abel Prize, one of the highest awards in mathematics. She died just a few days after giving birth to a daughter, but her completed work was published posthumously, and is still used today. The name of the theorem is after the name of great mathematician De Moivre, who made many contributions to the field of mathematics, mainly in the areas of theory of probability and algebra. He was the imperial mathematician in Prague, and he is best known for his three laws of planetary motion. Karen Uhlenbeck (born 1942) is an American mathematician, professor emeritus at the University of Texas, and distinguished visiting professor at Princeton University. Lorenzo Mascheroni (1750 – 1800) was an Italian mathematician and son of a wealthy landowner. 1453:  The Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople, marking the fall of the He invented some of the first mechanical calculators, as well as working on projective geometry, probability and the physics of the vacuum. Together with John Littlewood, he made important discoveries in analysis and number theory, including the distribution of prime numbers. Her daughter even described Maryam’s work as “painting”. 1859:  Charles Darwin publishes “On the Origin of Species”, introducing poison. The combined work is called Siddhānta-Śiromani, which is Sanskrit for Crown of Treatises. Mascheroni proved that all Euclidean constructions that can be done with compass and straightedge can also be done with just a compass: this is now known as the Mohr–Mascheroni theorem. August Ferdinand Möbius (1790 – 1868) was a German mathematician and astronomer. He was the first to prove that π is an irrational number, and he introduced hyperbolic trigonometric functions. He also gave the first definitions of number fields and rings, two important constructs in abstract algebra. Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736 – 1813) was an Italian mathematician who succeeded Leonard Euler as the director of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. 1088:  The first university is established in Bologna, Italy. Pierre de Fermat (1607 – 1665) was a French mathematician and lawyer. Many problems in dice and other games were included, some of which appeared in the Swiss mathematician Jakob (Jacques) Bernoulli’s Ars conjectandi (1713; “The Conjectural Arts”), which was published before de Moivre’s Doctrine but after his “De mensura.” He derived the principles of probability from the mathematical expectation of events, just the reverse of present-day practice. Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830) was a French mathematician, and a friend and advisor of Napoleon. He first came up with the idea while walking along the Royal Canal in Dublin, and carved the fundamental formula into a stone bridge he passed: i2=j2=k2=ijk=−1. Al-Ṣābiʾ Thābit ibn Qurrah al-Ḥarrānī (ثابت بن قره, c. 826 – 901 CE) was an Arabic mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator. The grouping of the notches might even suggest some more advanced mathematical understanding, like decimal numbers or prime numbers. This tablet shows a multiplication table that was created around 2600 BCE in the Sumerian city of Shuruppak. He is credited with the first use of superscripts for powers or exponents, and the cartesian coordinate system is named after him. In 1966, he was awarded the Fields medal. She also made considerable progress in solving Fermat’s Last Theorem, and regularly corresponded with Carl Friedrich Gauss. This textbook is written in verse, like many similar books at the time, which makes it wasy to memorise the arithemtic calculations. De Moivre discovered the formula for the normal distribution in probability, and first conjectured the central limit theorem. To solve some of these problems, Zhu even used the numbers in Pascal’s triangle, more than 300 years before Pascal was born! Zu Chongzhi (祖沖之, 429 – 500 CE) was Chinese astronomer, mathematician, writer, politician and inventor. While we know today this model is incorrect, Ptolemy’s scientific impact is indisputable. He invented coordinate geometry, long before Descartes, was the first to use fractional exponents, and worked on infinite series. Example 1: Write in the form s + bi. Maqalah fi al-jabra wa-al muqabalah, which means Demonstration of Problems in Algebra, is a manuscript written by the Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam, around 1100 CE. He contributed to a wide range of areas in mathematics, and dozens of theorems are named after him. 1609:  Kepler publishes the “Astronomia nova”, where he explains that planets History remembers him as the first to write mathematical explanation of the planets. Archimedes of Syracuse lived in the 3rd Century BCE and was one of the greatest mathematicians in history. If z = r(cos α + i sin α), and n is a natural number, then . In 2003, the Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman (Григо́рий Перельма́нborn, born 1966) proved the Poincaré Conjecture, which, until then, was one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics. He was denied a degree from Cambridge, and he later experienced violence from students at the University of Virginia during his short stay as a professor. Some ancient American civilisations like the Maya also used zero in their calendars, but their numbers systems did not survive colonisation. He is also the first individual in history that has a mathematical discovery named after him: Thales’ theorem. numeral system. David Hilbert (1862 – 1943) was one of the most influential mathematicians of the 20th century. Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, c. 965 – 1050) lived in Cairo during the Islamic Golden Age, and studied mathematics, physics, astronomy, philosophy, and medicine. Abraham de Moivre, (born May 26, 1667, Vitry, Fr.—died Nov. 27, 1754, London), French mathematician who was a pioneer in the development of analytic trigonometry and in the theory of probability. He was a vocal proponent of Heliocentrism, the idea that the Sun was at the centre of our solar system. Nikolai Lobachevsky (Никола́й Лобаче́вский, 1792 – 1856) was a Russian mathematician, and one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry. Euler was born in Switzerland and studied in Basel, but lived most of his life in Berlin, Prussia, and St. Petersburg, Russia. Only 15 of his paintings have survived, but among them are some of the best known and most reproduced works in the world, including the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. This Babylonian clay tablet, called Plimpton 322, was created around 1750 BCE in Sumeria, during the reign of Hammurabi the Great.